Oil Refinery Development ESIA, Bahrain
An Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) to World Bank/IFC standards and Equator Principles for the redevelopment of the Bapco Refinery. The ESIA involved extensive baseline investigations for noise, air quality, marine and terrestrial ecology (including avifauna), soil and groundwater conditions, and archaeology and cultural heritage. Hydrodynamic modelling was undertaken to determine the impact of the proposed discharges to sea, and noise and air modelling were undertaken to assess impacts of the project. Stakeholder engagement was an important part of the ESIA and included discussions and presentations to Government and Non-Government organisations and the local community via local representatives.